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VIDEO: Ubushakashatsi bwerekanye ko imyanda ituruka ku biribwa itanga ibitoro bishya by’indege, bigiye kugabanya imyuka ihumanya ikirere



Yanditswe na UZABAKIRIHO Jean Gabriel Yasomwe na

Uburyo bushya bwo gukora ibitoro by’indege mu bisigazwa by’ibiribwa bushobora kugabanya bidasanzwe imyuka ihumanya ikirere irekurwa n’indege, nk’uko abahanga muri siyansi babivuga.

Ubu, myinshi mu myanda y’ibiribwa ku isi itunganywamo ingufu za gas methane (biogas).

Ariko abashakashatsi muri Amerika babonye uburyo iyi myanda yahindurwamo ibitoro byo mu bwoko bwa p’araffin’ bikoresha moteri z’indege.

Abanditse ubushakashatsi bushya bavuga ko ibyo bitoro byagabanya ibyuka bihumanya ikirere ku kigero cya 165% ugereranyije n’ibitoro bisanzwe bicukurwa.

Uwo mubare uva ku igabanuka ry’imyuka ya carbon yoherezwa n’indege, kongeraho indi myuka ihumanya iba itacyoherejwe mu kirere mu gihe iyo myanda itunganyijwe.

Urwego rw’iby’indege ku isi ruri ku gitutu cy’isoko ry’abakenera kugenda n’indege riri kwiyongera n’amajwi asaba uru rwego kugabanya ibyuka bihumanya rwohereza mu kirere.

Muri Amerika, ubu buri mwaka bakoresha miliyari 21 z’amagaloni (gallon imwe muri Amerika ijyamo 3L) y’ibitoro by’indege, kandi byitezwe ko iki gipimo kizikuba kabiri mu mpera z’iki kinyejana.

Hagati aho kandi urwego rw’indege muri Amerika rwiyemeje kugabanya ho 50% ku myuka ihumanya rwohereza mu kirere muri iyo myaka.

Mu gihe hari gukorwa batiri (battery) zishobora gukoreshwa n’indege zikora ingendo ndende cyane ibi bishobora kuzafata igihe kinini, imbaraga nyinshi ziri gushyirwa ku gusimbuza ibitoro bisanzwe bikoreshwa.

Leta y’Ubwongereza yo iherutse gutangaza irushanwa ririmo miliyoni £15m mu gutera imbaraga kompanyi ngo zikore ibitoro bivuye mu myanda iva mu ngo.

Gukora ’paraffin’ ivuye mu myanda

Hari uburyo butandukanye busanzwe bukoreshwa mu gukora ibitoro bidahumanya ikirere by’imodoka n’amakamyo manini.

Hifashishwa amavuta ava mu mboga n’andi ava mu binyamavuta bitandukanye kugira ngo hakorwe ibyo bitoro.

Kugeza ubu byahendukaga kuvana ibitoro bya diesel by’imodoka muri ayo mavuta n’imyanda kurusha kuvanamo ibitoro by’indege - kuko byo bisaba ubundi buhanga, bikanazamura igiciro.

Abashakashatsi ubu bavuga ko bavumbuye uburyo bushya bwo kuvana ibyo bitoro bitangiza ikirere mu bisigazwa by’ibiryo, imyanda y’amatungo n’amazi mabi.

Byinshi muri ibyo - bita umwanda utose, ubusanzwe bivanwamo gas methane (biogas). Ariko, abahanga babonye uko bageze hagati mu gukora biogas bavanamo acide isa n’ifatika (VFA) aho gukora CH4.

Aba bashakashatsi bahise babasha gutunganya iyo acide bise VFA bayivanamo amoko abiri ya paraffin.

Ubwo ayo moko abiri yahuzwaga akavangwa yatanze 70% by’uruvange rw’ibitoro bikenerwa n’indege, kandi byujuje ubuziranenge busabwa n’abagenzuzi b’ibitoro by’indege.

Derek Vardon umushakashatsi wo mu kigo cya National Renewable Energy Laboratory muri Amerika uri mu bakuriye ubu bushakashatsi, agira ati:

"Kuba dushobora kuvana ibitoro by’indege muri iriya acide - niho mbona ko byose bishoboka mu buryo bwagutse. Birashoboka kuyitunganya neza igakoreshwa."

Ibi bitoro bishya ntabwo byagabanya gusa imyuka ya C02 yoherezwa mu kirere iva mu bitoro bisanzwe by’indege, ahubwo byanakiza imyuka ya methane iva ahajugunywa imyanda.

Derek Vardon ati: "Aho tubonera akamaro k’ubu buhanga ni uko twaba turinda imyuka ya methane, kandi tunagabanya bikomeye imyuka y’indege ihumanya ikirere. Kandi ibyo ntibishoboka n’ibitoro bisanzwe bicukurwa".

Ikipe y’abo bashakashatsi ivuga ko iteganya kongera ingano y’ibi bitoro bishya maze bikageragezwa mu ndege za Southwest Airlines yo muri Amerika mu 2023.

Imiryango irengera ibidukikije ishindikanya uku gushaka gukora ibitoro by’indege bitangiza ikirere, ivuga ko byaganisha ku kumaraho ibidukikije. Isaba abantu ahubwo kugabanya ingendo n’indege.

Derek Vardon nawe avuga ko ibi bitoro bishya by’indege atari igisubizo cyonyine.

Ati: "Niyo mpamvu twumva ko kugabanya ariyo mpinduka y’ingenzi umuntu yakora. Ariko nanone ubu indege zirakenewe cyane, aho rero niho dushaka kureba uko imyuka yangiza ikirere yagabanuka mu nzego zose, harimo n’indege."

Ubushakashatsi bw’aba bahanga bwatangajwe muri Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences (PNAS).

Inkuru ya BBC





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