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Ethiopia – Tigray: Dore uko TPLF yaganje igisirikare cyahoze ari ntavogerwa



Yanditswe na UZABAKIRIHO Jean Gabriel Yasomwe na

Igisirikare cya Ethiopia, cyahoze kitisukirwa ndetse cyubahwa n’Amerika, cyakomeje gukubitwa inshuro cyane ku rugamba kuburyo leta yafashe icyemezo kidasanzwe cyo guhamagarira abaturage b’abasivile kujya mu ntambara bakayifasha guhangana n’inyeshyamba zo muri Tigray.

Ni impinduka idasanzwe ku gisirikare.

Mu mwaka ushize, cyahiritse ku butegetsi ishyaka rya Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF) ryari ku butegetsi mu karere ka Tigray mu majyaruguru y’igihugu - none ubu abarwanyi b’uyu mutwe barimo gufata imijyi mu nzira yerekeza ku murwa mukuru Addis Ababa.

Faisal Roble, umusesenguzi ku karere k’ihembe ry’Afurika uba muri Amerika, asobanura ati: "Abarwanyi ba TPLF babanje gushegesha igisirikare bakoresheje intambara y’ibitero-shuma [guerilla] muri Tigray byo gutera bakongera bakiruka".
"Nuko bajya mu mirwano barabisoza".

Ariko, Achamyeleh Tamiru - Umunya-Ethiopia w’impuguke mu bukungu akaba n’umusesenguzi kuri politiki - yemeza ko gutera intambwe kwa TPLF ari ukw’"igihe gito" gusa.

Yagize ati: "Abanya-Ethiopia b’ingeri zose barimo guhagurukira kurwanirira no kurokora Ethiopia".

Amayeri y’urugamba y’abarwanyi ba TPLF yibutsa Samuel Ghebrehiwet, wahoze ari umwanditsi mukuru w’ishami rya BBC ritangaza ibiganiro mu rurimi rwa Tigrinya, ubuzima bwe nk’umusore w’Umunya-Eritrea arwana mu ntambara y’ibitero-shuma, hamwe n’Abanya-Tigray, barwanya ubutegetsi bwa Mengistu Haile Mariam muri Ethiopia kugeza buhiritswe mu 1991.

Avuga ko bari "bafite intwaro zoroheje, bashobora kwihuta cyane kandi mu buryo bworoshye, babeshejweho n’ibiryo byo gutuma baramuka gusa, kandi bagaragaza gukomeza umutsi cyane no kwiyemeza kugera ku ntego".

Eritrea yaje kugera ku bwigenge bwayo, mu gihe TPLF yafashe ubutegetsi muri Ethiopia - nubwo kwiharira politiki kwayo kwarangiye mu 2018 nyuma y’imyigaragambyo yitabiriwe n’imbaga.

Umukuru wayo yasubiye muri Tigray aho uwo mutwe warasiye amasasu ya mbere muri iyi ntambara mu ntangiriro y’ukwezi kwa cumi na kumwe mu 2020, ugaba igitero ku kigo cy’ingabo za leta ya Ethiopia muri ako karere ufashijwe na bamwe mu nshuti zawo mu gisirikare - barimo n’abakuru b’ingabo n’abasirikare - bahise bava mu ngabo za leta bakajya ku ruhande rwawo.

Ntabwo ari intwaro nyinshi gusa zafashwe icyo gihe, ahubwo n’abasirikare bakuru n’abafite amapeti yo hasi bagerageje kwirwanaho barishwe, mu gihe abandi babarirwa mu bihumbi muri bo bafashwe mpiri.

Bwana Achamyeleh yagize ati: "Icyo gitero cya nijoro ku kigo cya gisirikare urebye cyateje icyuho gituma Ethiopia urebye nta gisirikare cy’igihugu ifite".

Ariko, igisirikare - gifashijwe cyane n’ingabo za Eritrea, hamwe n’ingabo zo mu karere ka Amhara n’imitwe yitwaje intwaro yo muri ako karere - cyashoboye kwigaranzura uwo mutwe, kigaba ibitero by’indege n’igitero cyo ku butaka byatumye mu gihe kitageze ku kwezi kumwe TPLF ikurwa ku butegetsi muri Tigray.

Ariko, ni ko Bwana Samuel yavuze, ubwo izo ngabo zakoraga ubwicanyi ndengakamere ku baturage b’abasivile - harimo no gufata ku ngufu, kwica no gutwika imyaka (ibihingwa) - Abanya-Tigray b’"ingeri zose bahise bajya muri TPLF kurwana ku gaciro [ishema] kabo".

"Ababyeyi babwiye abana babo bati: ’Aho kugira ngo mupfire mu rugo nimujye kurwana’. Yahindutse intambara hagati y’abaturage ba Tigray n’igisirikare - atari intambara gusa hagati ya TPLF n’igisirikare".

Nkuko bivugwa na Bwana Roble, abahoze ari abajenerali bari baragiye mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru cyangwa baratorotse igisirikare bagiye mu misozi miremire n’ubuvumo (amasenga mu Kirundi) byo muri Tigray bakora umutwe wa Tigray Defence Forces (TDF) nk’ishami rya gisirikare rya TPLF, kugira ngo ababarirwa mu bihumbi za mirongo bashya bari bamaze kwinjira muri uwo mutwe bitegure neza.

Bwana Roble yagize ati: "Aba bajenerali babonye ari inshingano yabo kurinda abaturage ba Tigray. Hamwe n’ubumenyi bwabo bw’imbere ku miterere y’igisirikare [cya Ethiopia] bacuze umugambi wo kugitsinda".

Mu gihe ubu abarwanyi bo muri Tigray bageze ku ntera iri munsi ya kilometero 300 uvuye mu murwa mukuru Addis Ababa, biraboneka ko ari bo bafite ingufu cyane ugereranyije n’igisirikare cyigeze kuba mu bisirikare bikomeye cyane muri Afurika, nkuko Bwana Roble abivuga.

Ati: "Ethiopia yari umufatanya-bikorwa nimero ya mbere w’Amerika mu cyiswe intambara yo kurwanya iterabwoba mu karere k’ihembe ry’Afurika, cyane cyane muri Somalia, aho cyahiritse Ubumwe bw’Inkiko za Kisilamu [bwavuyemo umutwe wa al-Shabab]. Amerika yateraga inkunga y’amafaranga igisirikare, ikagiha intwaro, ndetse yanahaga abasirikare bacyo ibiryo bihiye [bitetse]".

"N’umuryango w’Ubumwe bw’Afurika wacungiraga ku butumwa bwayo bwo kubungabunga amahoro, ariko Ethiopia ubu ubwayo nta tuze ifite ndetse n’igisirikare cyayo gisigaye ku izina".

Gutoroka igisirikare no gutakaza icyizere

Ibibazo kuri TPLF byatangiye ubwo Minisitiri w’intebe wa Ethiopia Abiy Ahmed yageraga ku butegetsi mu kwezi kwa kane mu 2018, nyuma yuko amoko abiri manini cyane muri Ethiopia - Oromo na Amhara - akoze imyigaragambyo yo kwamagana imyaka 27 iri shyaka ryari rimaze riri ku isonga y’ubutegetsi muri iki gihugu.

Bwana Abiy yatanze igitekerezo cy’amavugurura menshi, bituma agirana ubushyamirane bukomeye na TPLF.

Bwana Roble yagize ati: "Abanya-Tigray bagize gusa hafi 6% k’abaturage [ba Ethiopia] kandi igihe TPLF yari iri ku butegetsi, yashyizeho uburyo bwo ku rwego rw’igihugu bwahaye amoko za leta z’uturere zayo bwite".

"TPLF yabonye ko Bwana Abiy [wo mu bwoko bwa Oromo] yashakaga kwikubira ubutegetsi. Byateje gushwana gukomeye hagati ya bo ndetse birangira habaye intambara".

Alex de Waal, ukuriye ikigo World Peace Foundation cyo muri Amerika, yavuze ko Bwana Abiy yari yaniyemeje kuvugurura igisirikare kugira ngo kimuyoboke, ndetse no kugira ngo acyemure impungenge z’uko cyari cyiganjemo Abanya-Tigray.

Profeseri de Waal yagize ati: "Abanya-Tigray bari hafi 18% by’igisirikare cyose, kandi bakubye hafi kabiri icyo kigero mu basirikare bo hejuru. Imibare yabo yari minini ugereranyije n’ingano y’abaturage [b’Abanya-Tigray]. Bwana Abiy yatangiye amavugurura yo gukuramo Abanya-Tigray, ashyiraho abasirikare bamurinda batorejwe muri Emira Zunze Ubumwe z’Abarabu [UAE] bamwumvira".

"Impinduka zatumye habaho gutakaza icyizere mu gisirikare, kireka kuba ingabo zishyize hamwe. Bwana Abiy ntiyabonye igihe cyo kongera kucyubaka mbere yuko intambara itangira".

Alex de Waal yavuze ko mu mitwe 20 y’ingabo za Ethiopia, 10 - igizwe n’abasirikare hafi 5,000 muri buri mutwe - yari yatsinzwe iratatana, naho abasirikare batari munsi ya 10,000 baricwa ndetse abandi bangana gutyo bafatwa mpiri. BBC yagerageje gusaba umuvugizi w’ingabo za Ethiopia kugira icyo abivugaho, ariko ntiyasubije.

Ibitero by’umubare munini

Nyuma yo kwisubiza igice kinini cya Tigray mu kwezi kwa gatandatu uyu mwaka, TPLF yagabye igitero ku turere baturanye twa Amhara na Afar, mu gihe Bwana Abiy yasabye Abanya-Ethiopia bose bashoboye ko bajya mu gisirikare no mu mitwe yitwaje intwaro bagafasha gutsinda inyeshyamba.

Profeseri de Waal yagize ati: "Mu guhagarika intambwe y’Abanya-Tigray, igisirikare cyakoze [muri Amhara] ibitero by’umubare munini w’abaturage, abanyeshuri n’urubyiruko rwo mu mujyi. Bari bafite umurava wo kurwana ku butaka bwabo ariko bari barahawe gusa imyitozo y’ibanze yo mu gihe cy’ibyumweru bicyeya, bakaba abo gukundukira ku birindiro bya TDF".

"Rimwe na rimwe abo mu cyiciro cya kabiri [cyabo] nta n’imbunda babaga bafite. Ababarirwa mu bihumbi - bishoboka ko bagera no mu bihumbi za mirongo - bishwe na TDF".

"Bituma habaho ibintu bigoye mu rwego rwo kubahiriza uburenganzira bwa muntu kuko biragorana gutandukanya umurwanyi n’umusivile. Binongera ubushyamirane bukomeye mu baturage - aha ndavuga Abanya-Amhara n’Abanya-Tigray - bikanatuma bigorana kugera ku mahoro n’ubwiyunge".

Bwana Achamyeleh ahakana ko aya yari amayeri y’urugamba. Avuga ko abasore bagombaga kurwana ku ho batuye hari hasumbirijwe n’inyeshyamba mu gihe nta ngabo zari zihari.

Ati: "Ntibashoboraga kwicara mu rugo nta cyo bakora mu gihe TPLF yagendaga umuryango [w’inzu] ku muryango ihiga Abanya-Amhara, yica ababyeyi b’abagore ndetse ifata abakobwa ku ngufu".

Mu buryo bushya bugamije kongera kuhisubiza, leta ya Ethiopia yatangaje igihe cy’ibihe bidasanzwe, biyiha ububasha bwo gushyira mu gisirikare "buri muturage wese ufite imyaka yo kwinjira mu gisirikare ufite intwaro", ndetse isaba abasezerewe mu ngabo kongera gusubira mu gisirikare.

Ubutegetsi bwo mu karere ka Amhara bwanatangaje ingamba zabwo bwite, butegeka ko ibiro bya leta byose bifungwa, bunasaba abaturage gutanga imodoka zabo ngo zifashishwe ku rugamba.

Profeseri de Waal yavuze ko izo ngamba bitashobokaga ko zitanga umusaruro.
Ati: "Bashobora gukusanya imibare minini ariko urwego rw’ubuyobozi n’ubugenzuzi bw’igisirikare rwarasenyutse. Igisirikare ni urwego rwubakwa mu gihe cy’imyaka, ruhuje intego, amahame, n’imikorere".

Ariko, Ann Fitz-Gerald, inzobere ku mutekano yo muri Canada, yemeza ko abarwanyi ba TPLF batakaje (bapfushije) abarwanyi benshi kurushaho. Avuga ko ari TPLF yakoreshaga uburyo bwo "kurwanisha umubare munini w’abantu" nk’uburyo bw’amaburakindi mu gufata imihanda y’ingenzi no gutuma igira ijambo mu biganiro.
Profeseri Fitz-Gerald avuga ko ubu igisirikare kiri mu birindiro byacyo, amakuru ava muri Ethiopia akavuga ko cyaburijemo amagerageza 12 yakozwe na TPLF ishaka gufata Mille - umujyi wegereye umuhanda werekeza ku byambu (ibivuko mu Kirundi) byo muri Djibouti, ahantu h’ingenzi cyane kuri iki gihugu cya Ethiopia kidakora ku nyanja.

Ibiganiro aho gufata umujyi

TPLF iri no mu gitero kigamije gutuma Addis Ababa - ituwe n’abaturage barenga miliyoni eshanu - igotwa (izengurukwa n’abarwanyi).

Bwana Samuel agira ati: "TPLF irashaka kotsa igitutu leta ngo ijye mu biganiro. Sintekereza ko bazinjira muri Addis Ababa. Ntibakunzweyo na busa".

Profeseri de Waal avuga ko leta yugarijwe no "gutsindwa mu rwego rwa gisirikare, ariko TPLF ntishobora kwigamba intsinzi kuko gutsinda ni mu rwego rwa politiki.

"Bacyeneye gushyigikirwa no kwifatanya na bo kw’umubare uhagije w’abafite ijambo muri politiki, ibyo badafite.

"Rero bizacyenerwa ko habaho ibiganiro, kandi TPLF izibanda ku kugera ku bijyanye n’ejo hazaza ha Tigray".





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